Health

Huge breakthrough could cure hearing loss

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Scientists may have discovered a way to treat hearing loss, which could help millions of people around the world.

In a stunning new development, scientists from the University of California may have found an innovative new way to treat hearing loss, a problem that affects millions of people and two thirds of people over 70 years of age. The discovery could eliminate the need for hearing aids and other devices for those who struggle with hearing.

The study focuses on neurons, which scientists believe is the wiring that allows hearing to happen. Over time, wear and tear causese these neurons to become damaged, and hence why most older people tend to suffer from hearing loss the most. The holy grail has been to find some way to repair and regenerate these damaged neurons.

Researchers think this could be done using something they reportedly call “bone velcro” that acts as a molecular anchor and keeps the treatment locked onto the inner ear bone. A gel or liquid could conceivably be applied to the opening of the ear.

The full statement from the university describing the technology follows below.

Researchers at USC and Harvard have developed a new approach to repair cells deep inside the ear — a potential remedy that could restore hearing for millions of elderly people and others who suffer hearing loss.

The lab study demonstrates a novel way for a drug to zero in on damaged nerves and cells inside the ear. It’s a potential remedy for a problem that afflicts two-thirds of people over 70 years and 17 percent of all adults in the United States.

“What’s new here is we figured out how to deliver a drug into the inner ear so it actually stays put and does what it’s supposed to do, and that’s novel,” said Charles E. McKenna, a corresponding author for the study and chemistry professor at USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences. “Inside this part of the ear, there’s fluid constantly flowing that would sweep dissolved drugs away, but our new approach addresses that problem. This is a first for hearing loss and the ear. It’s also important because it may be adaptable for other drugs that need to be applied within the inner ear.”

The paper was published April 4 in the journal Bioconjugate Chemistry. McKenna co-authored it with David Jung of Harvard Medical School, among others. It is the latest achievement in USC’s priority program to advance biomedicine, including the recent launching of the USC Michelson Center for Convergent Bioscience. The Michelson Center unites USC experts across disciplines to solve some of the most intractable research challenges related to health at the molecular level. The facility will house the new USC Center of Excellence in Drug Discovery, with McKenna as its director.

There are caveats. The research was conducted on animal tissues in a petri dish. It has not yet been tested in living animals or humans. Yet, the researchers are hopeful given the similarities of cells and mechanisms involved. McKenna says since the technique works in the laboratory, the findings provide “strong preliminary evidence” it could work in living creatures. They are already planning the next phase involving animals and hearing loss.

The study breaks new ground because researchers developed a novel drug-delivery method. Specifically, it targets the cochlea, a snail-like structure in the inner ear where sensitive cells convey sound to the brain. Hearing loss occurs due to aging, working with noisy machines and too many loud concerts. Over time, hair-like sensory cells and bundles of neurons that transmit their vibrations break down, as do ribbon-like synapses, which connect the cells.

The researchers designed a molecule combining 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, which mimics a protein critical for development and function of the nervous system, and bisphosphonate, a type of drug that sticks to bones. The pairing of the two delivered the breakthrough solution, the researchers said, as neurons responded to the molecule, regenerating synapses in mouse ear tissue that led to repair of the hair cells and neurons, which are essential to hearing.

“We’re not saying it’s a cure for hearing loss,” McKenna said. “It’s a proof of principle for a new approach that’s extremely promising. It’s an important step that offers a lot of hope.”

Hearing loss is projected to increase as the U.S. population ages. Previous research has shown that hearing loss is expected to nearly double in 40 years. Damage to the inner ear can lead to “hidden hearing loss,” which is difficulty hearing whispers and soft sounds, especially in noisy places. The new research gives hope to many hoping to avoid loss of hearing and quality of life.

The authors include lead researcher Judith S. Kempfle, as well as Christine Hamadani, Nicholas Koen, Albert S. Edge and David H. Jung of Harvard Medical School and The Eaton-Peabody Laboratories in Boston. Kempfle is also affiliated with the University of Tu?bingen Medical Center. Corresponding author Charles E. McKenna, as well as Kim Nguyen and Boris A. Kashemirov, are in the USC Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.

This work was supported by the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Herbert Silverstein Otology and Neurotology Research Award, the American Otological Society Research Grant, and by a $567,783 grant from the National Institute of Deafness and other Communicative Disorders (R01 DC007174).

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